A while back I wrote a short story called "Aquarius" and a bunch of it takes place on a spaceship.
My mom, who usually hates science fiction, read the story and told me it should be a whole book.
To be honest, I don't think I could write such a book. Because it would be pretty obvious that I don't know enough about space stuff, space travel, engineering, astronaut stuff, or technical junk to make it convincing. And if I did a whole bunch of research and got more knowledgeable people to read it for me and advise me on making it realistic, I think it would still show.
The short story I wrote was focused primarily on the relationship between the characters, the politics surrounding their story, and the emotional implications of knowingly leaving Earth forever. I didn't have to go into a huge amount of detail to make the slice of life that the story was about. Just the basic idea was enough to write a short story. I don't think the same is true for making it feel real for a novel.
That's not to say worldbuilding isn't important in short stories. The opposite is true. I think your world should still be able to feel full and comprehensively built. But in a short story, I felt like I could "get away with" not knowing very much about spaceships and whatnot because you wouldn't be spending enough time with the characters to see where I didn't have the knowledge to make it feel authentic. In a novel, I think I would want to know more about everything--sleeping arrangements on a spaceship, what they wear, what food they eat, the everyday lives of astronauts, what the different areas of the ship look like, all that stuff. But in a short story, all I had to do was hint at it and let the reader fill in the blanks to their satisfaction.
I think my limitations would make it impossible to tell this story in a novel format. I think presenting it in a short story was the best choice. It was honestly my only option if I didn't want to have a co-author, I think. This is probably why I'm better at fantasy. The science I did mention makes sense--like, you know, how far away a star is--but I hand-waved a lot of it with "um . . . aliens?" In fantasy you can make a comprehensive world built on fantastical magic laws that don't actually adhere to science, but should still make sense internally. In science fiction, the rules are different. So I had to add a level of distance from the material that prevents the actual scientific explanations from being vital to the story's playing out, and you presumably can accept that the characters know what they're talking about and know what they're doing even if the author does not.
I wouldn't feel comfortable writing a novel knowing as little as I know about space science. But I felt comfortable enough visiting it with a short story.